Attack speed

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The frequency with which units attack is measured in attack speed. A unit's attack speed can be modified by items, agility, abilities, and auras.

Base attack time[edit]

Every unit has a base attack time (BAT), which refers to the default interval between attacks for an unbuffed unit with 0 agility and no attack speed bonus. For example, a melee lane creep has a BAT of 1.00 seconds, and thus attacks once every second by default. Similarly, if a hero with 1.7 BAT had 0 agility and no bonus attack speed, they would attack once every 1.70 seconds. While nearly every unit can have their attack speed modified, only a few heroes can actively change their BAT.

Every hero has a BAT of 1.7 except for the following:

Hero Base Attack Time Difference in Attacks/Sec AS Range in 1.7 BAT Representation
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist ( Chemical Rage LVL 3 + Talent) 0.8 (+112.5%) 42.5~1275
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist ( Chemical Rage LVL 2 + Talent) 0.95 (+78.9%) 35.8~1073.7
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist ( Chemical Rage LVL 3) 1 (+70%) 34~1020
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist ( Chemical Rage LVL 1 + Talent) 1.1 (+54.5%) 30.9~927.3
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist ( Chemical Rage LVL 2) 1.15 (+47.8%) 29.6~887
Dark Willow minimap icon.png Dark Willow 1.3 (+30.8%) 26.2~784.6
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist ( Chemical Rage LVL 1) 1.3 (+30.8%) 26.2~784.6
Juggernaut minimap icon.png Juggernaut 1.4 (+21.4%) 24.3~728.6
Oracle minimap icon.png Oracle 1.4 (+21.4%) 24.3~728.6
Anti-Mage minimap icon.png Anti-Mage 1.4 (+21.4%) 24.3~728.6
Troll Warlord minimap icon.png Troll Warlord ( Berserker's Rage) 1.45 (+17.2%) 23.4~703.4
Lone Druid minimap icon.png Lone Druid ( True Form) 1.5 (+13.3%) 22.7~680
Morphling minimap icon.png Morphling 1.5 (+13.3%) 22.7~680
Queen of Pain minimap icon.png Queen of Pain 1.5 (+13.3%) 22.7~680
Terrorblade minimap icon.png Terrorblade 1.5 (+13.3%) 22.7~680
Windranger minimap icon.png Windranger 1.5 (+13.3%) 22.7~680
Huskar minimap icon.png Huskar 1.6 (+6.2%) 21.3~637.5
Lina minimap icon.png Lina 1.6 (+6.2%) 21.3~637.5
Bristleback minimap icon.png Bristleback 1.8 (-5.6%) 18.9~566.7
Magnus minimap icon.png Magnus 1.8 (-5.6%) 18.9~566.7
Sven minimap icon.png Sven 1.8 (-5.6%) 18.9~566.7
Weaver minimap icon.png Weaver 1.8 (-5.6%) 18.9~566.7
Lifestealer minimap icon.png Lifestealer 1.85 (-8.1%) 18.4~551.4
Treant Protector minimap icon.png Treant Protector 1.9 (-10.5%) 17.9~536.8
Spirit Breaker minimap icon.png Spirit Breaker 1.9 (-10.5%) 17.9~536.8
Doom minimap icon.png Doom 2 (-15%) 17~510
  • Note: Rubick minimap icon.png Rubick is also capable of lowering his BAT if he steals and uses any of the abilities listed in the above table.
Unit Base Attack Time Difference in Attacks/Sec AS Range in 1.7 BAT Representation
Witch Doctor Death Ward model.png Death Ward 0.22 (+672.7%) 155~4636
Visage Familiar model.png Familiar 0.4 (+325.0%) 85~2550
Necronomicon Warrior 3 model.png Necronomicon Warrior 0.75 (+126.6%) 45~1360
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 4) 0.9 (+88.9%) 38~1133
Nature's Prophet Treant model.png Greater Treant 1 (+70.0%) 34~1020
Melee creeps.png Melee and Ranged Creeps 1 (+70.0%) 34~1020
Necronomicon Archer 3 model.png Necronomicon Archer 1 (+70.0%) 34~1020
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 3) 1 (+70.0%) 34~1020
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 2) 1.1 (+54.6%) 30.9~927.6
Warlock Golem model.png Warlock's Golem 1.2 (+41.7%) 28~850
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 1) 1.2 (+41.7%) 28~850
Dark Troll Summoner Skeleton Warrior model.png Wraith King Skeleton 1.2 (+41.7%) 28~850
Beastmaster Boar model.png Boar 1.25 (+36.0%) 27~816
Brewmaster Earth minimap icon.png Earth 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756
Brewmaster Fire minimap icon.png Fire 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756
Broodmother Spiderling model.png Spiderite 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756
Broodmother Spiderling model.png Spiderling 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 4) 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 3) 1.45 (+17.2%) 23~703
Enigma Eidolon model.png Eidolon 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680
Invoker Forged Spirit model.png Forged Spirit 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680
Venomancer Plague Ward model.png Plague Ward 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680
Shadow Shaman Serpent Ward model.png Serpent Ward 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680
Brewmaster Storm minimap icon.png Storm 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 2) 1.55 (+9.7%) 22~658
Undying Zombie model.png Undying Zombie 1.6 (+6.3%) 21~638
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 1) 1.65 (+3.0%) 21~618
Nature's Prophet Treant model.png Treant 1.75 (-2.9%) 19~583
Roshan model.png Roshan 2 (-15.0%) 17~510
Siege creeps.png Siege Creeps 2.7 (-37.0%) 13~378
Neutral Unit Base Attack Time
Ghost model.png Ghost 1
Centaur Courser model.png Centaur Courser 1.3
Ancient Granite Golem model.png Ancient Granite Golem 1.35
Ancient Rock Golem model.png Ancient Rock Golem 1.35
Alpha Wolf model.png Alpha Wolf 1.35
Dark Troll Summoner model.png Dark Troll Summoner 1.35
Hill Troll model.png Hill Troll 1.35
Kobold model.png Kobold 1.35
Kobold Foreman model.png Kobold Foreman 1.35
Kobold Soldier model.png Kobold Soldier 1.35
Mud Golem model.png Mud Golem 1.35
Ogre Bruiser model.png Ogre Bruiser 1.35
Ogre Frostmage model.png Ogre Frostmage 1.35
Satyr Mindstealer model.png Satyr Mindstealer 1.35
Satyr Tormenter model.png Satyr Tormenter 1.35
Mud Golem model.png Shard Golem 1.35
Wildwing model.png Wildwing 1.35
Wildwing Ripper model.png Wildwing Ripper 1.35
Ancient Black Dragon model.png Ancient Black Dragon 1.5
Ancient Prowler Acolyte model.png Ancient Prowler Acolyte 1.5
Ancient Prowler Shaman model.png Ancient Prowler Shaman 1.5
Centaur Conqueror model.png Centaur Conqueror 1.5
Fell Spirit model.png Fell Spirit 1.5
Hellbear model.png Hellbear 1.5
Giant Wolf model.png Giant Wolf 1.55
Hellbear Smasher model.png Hellbear Smasher 1.55
Harpy Scout model.png Harpy Scout 1.6
Harpy Stormcrafter model.png Harpy Stormcrafter 1.6
Hill Troll Berserker model.png Hill Troll Berserker 1.6
Vhoul Assassin model.png Vhoul Assassin 1.6
Satyr Banisher model.png Satyr Banisher 1.7
Ancient Black Drake model.png Ancient Black Drake 1.8
Ancient Rumblehide model.png Ancient Rumblehide 1.8
Ancient Thunderhide model.png Ancient Thunderhide 1.8
Hill Troll Priest model.png Hill Troll Priest 1.8

Attack speed representation[edit]

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The reciprocal of base attack time is base attack speed. For most heroes, this is 1 / 1.7 = 0.588 attacks per second. Attack speed is expressed in percent of base attack speed. The base is therefore expressed as 100. Each point of increased attack speed (IAS) adds 1 to that, giving 1% of base attack speed. Each point of agility increases IAS by 1. IAS is also modifiable by items, abilities, buffs, and debuffs. Attack speed works together with BAT to determine how often a unit can attack.

Attack speed caps of 20 and 700 are reached with -80 attack speed reduction and with +600 increased attack speed respectively, since every unit has a base attack speed of 100.

  • Note: When mousing over attack damage in the HUD, the first field shows the attack speed and the time per attack in parenthesis. The attack speed field is defaulted to 100 and adds the IAS afterward, leading to a lower boundary of 20 and an upper boundary of 700. Even though the display may show a unit to "exceed" these boundaries, the actual attack speed used for calculations will still obey the caps of 20 and 700. This can be easily verified by observing that the "time between attacks" display does not change even when pushing well past "700 attack speed".
  • Note2: Units that do not have 1.7 BAT will display their attack speed differently in the in-game HUD as if they had 1.7 BAT. For example, a unit with 0.85 BAT and no bonus attack speed (100 attack speed) will display itself as having 200 attack speed, because 0.85 seconds is how long a unit with 1.70 BAT and 200 attack speed would take in between attacks. This strange quirk makes it harder to figure out if a hero without 1.7 BAT is nearing the attack speed cap, but it does allow players to compare this uniform "attack speed metric" across all heroes more easily (only their base attack time though, as any bonuses are not expressed in this "attack speed metric", but just added on top).

Attack speed formula[edit]

IAS vs BAT: attacks per second

The formulas below denote the relationship between BAT, IAS, attacks per second, and time between attacks.

Attacks per second = [(100 + IAS) × 0.01] / BAT
Attack time = BAT / [(100 + IAS) × 0.01] = 1 / (attacks per second)

For example, a lvl 1 Axe with no items has 1.7 BAT and 20 agility, which is converted to (0.20).

Attacks per second = [(100 + IAS) × 0.01] / BAT
Attacks per second = [(100 + 20) × 0.01] / 1.7
Attacks per second = 1.2 / 1.7
Attacks per second = ~0.706

>> Axe attacks about 0.706 times per second.

Attack time = 1 / 0.706
Attack time = ~1.417

>> Axe takes about 1.417 seconds between attacks.

Remember that units start with 100 attack speed, which caps at 20 and 700. This can be modified by IAS, which therefore caps at -80 and +500.


Here are some attack speed benchmarks and their effect on attacks per second:

-80 attack speed, a unit with 20 AS will take 5/1 times their BAT to attack (1/5x normal speed) (lower cap)
-75 attack speed, a unit with 25 AS will take 4/1 times their BAT to attack (1/4x normal speed)
-66 attack speed, a unit with 33 AS will take 3/1 times their BAT to attack (1/3x normal speed)
-50 attack speed, a unit with 50 AS will take 2/1 times their BAT to attack (1/2x normal speed)
+00 attack speed, a unit with 100 AS will take 1/1 times their BAT to attack (1x normal speed)
+100 attack speed, a unit with 200 AS will take 1/2 times their BAT to attack (2x normal speed)
+200 attack speed, a unit with 300 AS will take 1/3 times their BAT to attack (3x normal speed)
+300 attack speed, a unit with 400 AS will take 1/4 times their BAT to attack (4x normal speed)
+400 attack speed, a unit with 500 AS will take 1/5 times their BAT to attack (5x normal speed)
+500 attack speed, a unit with 600 AS will take 1/6 times their BAT to attack (6x normal speed)
+600 attack speed, a unit with 700 AS will take 1/7 times their BAT to attack (7x normal speed) (upper cap)

List of items increasing attack speed[edit]

Bonus attack speed
Item Value Item cost Cost per value point
Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter 10 4200 420
Armlet of Mordiggian (Inactive) icon.png Armlet of Mordiggian 25 2380 95.2
Assault Cuirass icon.png Assault Cuirass 55 5250 95.45
Band of Elvenskin icon.png Band of Elvenskin 6 450 75
Blade of Alacrity icon.png Blade of Alacrity 10 1000 100
Bloodthorn icon.png Bloodthorn 30 7205 240.17
Bracer icon.png Bracer 3 515 171.67
Buckler icon.png Buckler 2 800 400
Butterfly icon.png Butterfly 65 5475 84.23
Circlet icon.png Circlet 2 165 82.5
Crimson Guard icon.png Crimson Guard 2 3550 1775
Crown icon.png Crown 4 450 112.5
Dagon 1 icon.png Dagon 1 5 2700 540
Dagon 2 icon.png Dagon 2 5 3950 790
Dagon 3 icon.png Dagon 3 5 5200 1040
Dagon 4 icon.png Dagon 4 5 6450 1290
Dagon 5 icon.png Dagon 5 5 7700 1540
Diffusal Blade 1 icon.png Diffusal Blade 20 3150 157.5
Dragon Lance icon.png Dragon Lance 12 1900 158.33
Drum of Endurance icon.png Drum of Endurance 41 1525 37.2
Eaglesong icon.png Eaglesong 25 3200 128
Echo Sabre icon.png Echo Sabre 10 2650 265
Ethereal Blade icon.png Ethereal Blade 40 4700 117.5
Eye of Skadi icon.png Eye of Skadi 25 5500 220
Ghost Scepter icon.png Ghost Scepter 5 1500 300
Glimmer Cape icon.png Glimmer Cape 20 1950 97.5
Gloves of Haste icon.png Gloves of Haste 20 500 25
Guardian Greaves icon.png Guardian Greaves 5 5375 1075
Hand of Midas icon.png Hand of Midas 40 2150 53.75
Headdress icon.png Headdress 2 525 262.5
Helm of the Dominator icon.png Helm of the Dominator 22 1875 85.23
Hurricane Pike icon.png Hurricane Pike 20 4600 230
Hyperstone icon.png Hyperstone 55 2000 36.36
Iron Branch icon.png Iron Branch 1 50 50
Linken's Sphere icon.png Linken's Sphere 13 5050 388.46
Magic Wand icon.png Magic Wand 3 450 150
Manta Style icon.png Manta Style 38 4700 123.68
Mask of Madness icon.png Mask of Madness 120 1775 14.79
Mekansm icon.png Mekansm 5 2275 455
Mjollnir icon.png Mjollnir 75 5600 74.67
Monkey King Bar icon.png Monkey King Bar 10 4175 417.5
Moon Shard icon.png Moon Shard 140 4000 28.57
Null Talisman icon.png Null Talisman 3 515 171.67
Oblivion Staff icon.png Oblivion Staff 10 1650 165
Orchid Malevolence icon.png Orchid Malevolence 30 4075 135.83
Phase Boots icon.png Phase Boots 25 1550 62
Pipe of Insight icon.png Pipe of Insight 2 3025 1512.5
Power Treads (Agility) icon.png Power Treads (Agility) 14 1380 98.57
Quarterstaff icon.png Quarterstaff 10 875 87.5
Rod of Atos icon.png Rod of Atos 12 2750 229.17
Sange and Yasha icon.png Sange and Yasha 32 4100 128.13
Scythe of Vyse icon.png Scythe of Vyse 10 5700 570
Shadow Amulet icon.png Shadow Amulet 20 1400 70
Shadow Blade icon.png Shadow Blade 30 2800 93.33
Silver Edge icon.png Silver Edge 45 5550 123.33
Slippers of Agility icon.png Slippers of Agility 3 135 45
Solar Crest icon.png Solar Crest 10 3875 387.5
Spirit Vessel icon.png Spirit Vessel 2 2975 1487.5
Ultimate Orb icon.png Ultimate Orb 10 2150 215
Urn of Shadows icon.png Urn of Shadows 2 875 437.5
Veil of Discord icon.png Veil of Discord 6 2050 341.67
Vladmir's Offering icon.png Vladmir's Offering 2 1925 962.5
Wraith Band icon.png Wraith Band 12 515 42.92
Yasha icon.png Yasha 28 2050 73.21
Yasha and Kaya icon.png Yasha and Kaya 32 4100 128.13
Values may include portions from actives or auras.

List of abilities increasing attack speed[edit]

  • Curse of Avernus icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 40/60/80/100
    Duration: 4
    Affects every unit attacking a debuffed unit.
  • Frenzy (Ancient Thunderhide) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 75
    Duration: 8
    Affects targeted ally.
  • War Drums Aura (Ancient Thunderhide) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 15
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Magnetic Field icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 50/60/70/80
    Duration: 3.5/4.5/5.5/6.5
    Radius: 275
    Affects all allied heroes and buildings within the field.
  • Culling Blade icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 30
    Duration: 6 (Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter. 10)
    Affects allies within a 900 radius upon successfully culling an enemy.
  • Inner Beast icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 15/25/35/45
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Strafe icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 80/140/200/260
    Duration: 3 (Talent 7)
    Affects self.
  • Drum of Endurance icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 35
    Duration: 6
    Affects allies within a 900 radius upon cast.
  • Swiftness Aura (Hellbear Smasher) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 15
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Hurricane Pike icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 100
    Duration: 5
    When it is cast on an enemy. Affects self. Only grants attack speed against the targeted enemy. Bonus is lost after 4 attacks or within 5 seconds, whichever is shorter.
  • Berserker's Blood icon.png
    Max Attack Speed Bonus: 220/260/300/340
    Affects self. Grants attack speed for point of health missing, reaching the cap at 10% health.
  • Alacrity icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 10/25/40/55/70/85/100 (Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter. /115)
    Duration: 9
    Affects targeted ally. Based on level of Wex.
  • Wex icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus per Wex Instance: 2/4/6/8/10/12/14
    Max instances: 3
    Affects self. 3 instances grant 6/12/18/24/30/36/42 attack speed.
  • Overcharge icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 40/50/60/70
    Affects self and the Tethered ally. Lasts until toggled off.
  • Press the Attack icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 65/90/115/140
    Duration: 5
    Affects targeted ally.
  • Rage icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 50/60/70/80
    Duration: 3/4/5/6
    Affects self.
  • Fiery Soul icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus per Stack: 40/55/70/85 (Talent 75/90/105/120)
    Max Stacks: 3
    Duration: 10
    Affects self. Gains a stack on each spell cast. 3 stacks grant 120/165/210/255 (Talent 225/270/315/360) attack speed.
  • Spirit Link icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 20/40/60/80
    Duration: 10
    Affects self and the Lua error: Error: No database table exists named "units"..Lone Druid Spirit Bear icon.png Spirit Bear.
  • Leap icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 60/80/100/120 (Talent 160/180/200/220)
    Duration: 2.5
  • Archer Aura (Necronomicon Archer) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 5/7/9
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Hunter in the Night icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 45/60/75/90
    Affects self. Grants bonuses only during the night.
  • Bloodlust icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 30/40/50/60 (Talent 70/80/90/100)
    Duration: 30
    Affects targeted ally. Can be cast on buildings.
  • Phantom Strike icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 100/125/150/175
    Duration: 2.25
    Affects self.
  • Battle Trance icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 140/170/200
    Duration: 6.5
    Affects self.
  • Fervor icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus per Stack: 15/20/25/30
    Max Stacks: 12 (Talent 15)
    Affects self. Gains a stack on each attack on the same target. All stacks are lost upon changing target. 12 stacks grant 180/240/300/360 (Talent (assuming 15 stacks) 225/300/375/450) attack speed.
  • Overpower icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 400
    Duration: 15
    Affects self. Bonus is lost after 3/4/5/6 attacks or within 15 seconds, whichever is shorter.
  • Grave Chill icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 64
    Duration: 3/4/5/6
    Affects self and the Lua error: Error: No database table exists named "units"..Visage Familiar icon.png Familiars.
  • Focus Fire icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 400
    Duration: 20
    Affects self. Only grants attack speed against the targeted enemy. The buff is not lost upon switching target, so it continues to give attack speed upon switching back to it.
  • Winter's Curse icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 55
    Duration: 4/4.75/5.5
    Affects all enemy units within 500 radius around the target.

List of items and abilities reducing attack speed[edit]


Version history[edit]

Version
Description
  • Increased maximum attack speed cap from 600 to 700.
  • Increased maximum attack speed cap from 500 to 600.

See also[edit]