Armor

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Ice Armor icon.png

Armor is an attribute shared by all units. Armor is used to determine the amount of damage reduction (or amplification if an armor value is negative) a unit takes from physical damage sources. Higher armor values reduce more damage. Armor is increased by agility, certain abilities and talents, as well as some items. Most items in the armor shop provide armor bonuses.

Main armor[edit]

Main armor is the armor value shown in white numbers near the shield icon in the HUD, consisting of base armor and the armor granted by a hero's agility. The only way to improve a hero's main armor is to increase its agility.

The formula to calculate a hero's main armor is:

main armor = base armor + (agility * (1 / 6.25)).

Base armor[edit]

Base armor is the part of the main armor that never changes throughout a game. It consists of one fixed value set for each unit individually. The base armor of a unit can be a negative number. Since only heroes have agility, the HUD of all non-hero units shows their base armor.

The base armor of heroes can be calculated with this formula:

base armor = main armor - (agility * (1 / 6.25)).

Armor granted by agility[edit]

The sum of agility points a hero has is multiplied by (1 / 6.25) and added on top of the base armor to define the main armor value. Agility can be increased by acquiring levels, as well as specific abilities, items and talents.

Armor of heroes[edit]

Hero Armor
Hero Base Armor Starting Armor Max Main Armor
Abaddon icon.png Abaddon -2 1.83 7.83
Alchemist icon.png Alchemist -1 1.67 6.47
Ancient Apparition icon.png Ancient Apparition -1 2.33 11.13
Anti-Mage icon.png Anti-Mage -1 2.67 13.87
Arc Warden icon.png Arc Warden -2 0.5 7.7
Axe icon.png Axe -2 1.33 10.13
Bane icon.png Bane 1 4.83 14.43
Batrider icon.png Batrider 0 2.5 8.5
Beastmaster icon.png Beastmaster -1 2 8.4
Bloodseeker icon.png Bloodseeker 0 4 16
Bounty Hunter icon.png Bounty Hunter 3 6.5 17.3
Brewmaster icon.png Brewmaster -2 1.67 9.67
Bristleback icon.png Bristleback 0 2.83 10.03
Broodmother icon.png Broodmother 0 2.5 11.3
Centaur Warrunner icon.png Centaur Warrunner -1 1.5 5.5
Chaos Knight icon.png Chaos Knight 1 3.33 11.73
Chen icon.png Chen -1 1.5 9.9
Clinkz icon.png Clinkz 0 3.67 14.07
Clockwerk icon.png Clockwerk -1 1.17 10.37
Crystal Maiden icon.png Crystal Maiden 0 2.67 9.07
Dark Seer icon.png Dark Seer 5 7 11.8
Dark Willow icon.png Dark Willow -1 2 8.4
Dazzle icon.png Dazzle -1 2.5 9.3
Death Prophet icon.png Death Prophet 0 2.33 7.93
Disruptor icon.png Disruptor -1 1.5 7.1
Doom icon.png Doom -1 0.83 4.43
Dragon Knight icon.png Dragon Knight 0 3.17 11.17
Drow Ranger icon.png Drow Ranger -3 0.83 9.63
Earth Spirit icon.png Earth Spirit 0 2.83 8.83
Earthshaker icon.png Earthshaker 0 2 7.6
Elder Titan icon.png Elder Titan 0 2.33 9.53
Ember Spirit icon.png Ember Spirit 0 3.67 10.87
Enchantress icon.png Enchantress 0 3.17 10.37
Enigma icon.png Enigma 2 4.33 8.33
Faceless Void icon.png Faceless Void 0 3.83 15.03
Grimstroke icon.png Grimstroke 0 3 10.6
Gyrocopter icon.png Gyrocopter 2 5.17 16.37
Huskar icon.png Huskar -2 0.5 6.1
Invoker icon.png Invoker -1 1.33 8.93
Io icon.png Io -2 0.33 6.73
Jakiro icon.png Jakiro 1 2.67 7.47
Juggernaut icon.png Juggernaut 1 7 16.6
Keeper of the Light icon.png Keeper of the Light -1 1.5 7.9
Kunkka icon.png Kunkka 1 3.33 8.53
Legion Commander icon.png Legion Commander -1 2 8.8
Leshrac icon.png Leshrac 0 3.83 10.63
Lich icon.png Lich -1 1.5 9.5
Lifestealer icon.png Lifestealer -2 1 8.6
Lina icon.png Lina 0 2.67 8.67
Lion icon.png Lion -1 1.5 7.5
Lone Druid icon.png Lone Druid -2 1.33 10.93
Luna icon.png Luna 0 3 15.4
Lycan icon.png Lycan -2 0.67 4.67
Magnus icon.png Magnus 1 3.5 13.5
Medusa icon.png Medusa -1 2.67 16.27
Meepo icon.png Meepo 3 6.83 12.43
Mirana icon.png Mirana -1 2 14.8
Monkey King icon.png Monkey King -3 0.67 13.47
Morphling icon.png Morphling -2 2 16.8
Naga Siren icon.png Naga Siren 3 6.5 19.3
Nature's Prophet icon.png Nature's Prophet 2 5 18.2
Necrophos icon.png Necrophos 1 3 8.2
Night Stalker icon.png Night Stalker 2 5 14.2
Nyx Assassin icon.png Nyx Assassin 1 4.17 12.97
Ogre Magi icon.png Ogre Magi 6 8.33 14.73
Omniknight icon.png Omniknight 1 3.5 10.7
Oracle icon.png Oracle 0 2.5 9.3
Outworld Devourer icon.png Outworld Devourer 1.5 5.5 13.5
Pangolier icon.png Pangolier 1 4 15.2
Phantom Assassin icon.png Phantom Assassin 1 4.83 17.63
Phantom Lancer icon.png Phantom Lancer 0 4.83 15.23
Phoenix icon.png Phoenix -2 0 5.2
Puck icon.png Puck -2 1.67 8.47
Pudge icon.png Pudge -2 0.33 6.33
Pugna icon.png Pugna 0 2.67 6.67
Queen of Pain icon.png Queen of Pain -1 2 10
Razor icon.png Razor -1 2.67 9.87
Riki icon.png Riki 1 6 14.8
Rubick icon.png Rubick -1 2.17 10.57
Sand King icon.png Sand King -1 2.17 9.37
Shadow Demon icon.png Shadow Demon 0 3 11.8
Shadow Fiend icon.png Shadow Fiend -1 2.33 13.93
Shadow Shaman icon.png Shadow Shaman 1 3.67 10.07
Silencer icon.png Silencer -1 2.67 14.67
Skywrath Mage icon.png Skywrath Mage -2 0.17 3.37
Slardar icon.png Slardar 3 5.83 15.43
Slark icon.png Slark -1 2.5 8.5
Sniper icon.png Sniper -1 2.5 13.3
Spectre icon.png Spectre 0 3.83 11.03
Spirit Breaker icon.png Spirit Breaker 2 4.83 11.63
Storm Spirit icon.png Storm Spirit 2 5.67 11.67
Sven icon.png Sven 1 4.5 12.5
Techies icon.png Techies 5 7.33 12.53
Templar Assassin icon.png Templar Assassin 1 4.83 14.03
Terrorblade icon.png Terrorblade 7 10.67 27.47
Tidehunter icon.png Tidehunter 0 2.5 8.5
Timbersaw icon.png Timbersaw -2 0.67 5.87
Tinker icon.png Tinker 2 4.17 8.97
Tiny icon.png Tiny 0 0 0
Treant Protector icon.png Treant Protector -2 0.5 8.5
Troll Warlord icon.png Troll Warlord -1 2.5 12.5
Tusk icon.png Tusk -1 2.83 11.23
Underlord icon.png Underlord 1 3 8.2
Undying icon.png Undying 2 3.67 6.87
Ursa icon.png Ursa 5 8 16.4
Vengeful Spirit icon.png Vengeful Spirit 0 4.5 17.7
Venomancer icon.png Venomancer 0 4.33 15.53
Viper icon.png Viper -2 1.5 13.1
Visage icon.png Visage -2 -0.17 5.03
Warlock icon.png Warlock 1 2.67 6.67
Weaver icon.png Weaver -1 1.33 13.73
Windranger icon.png Windranger -1 1.83 7.43
Winter Wyvern icon.png Winter Wyvern -1 1.67 9.27
Witch Doctor icon.png Witch Doctor -1 1.17 6.77
Wraith King icon.png Wraith King -1 2 8.8
Zeus icon.png Zeus 0 1.83 6.63

Bonus armor[edit]

Bonus armor is the armor value shown in green numbers with a plus on the left, right below the white armor number on a unit's statistics. Whenever an item or skill shows a +armor value, e.g. Blade Mail icon.png Blade Mail (+5 Armor), it increases the bonus armor of the affected unit. Probably the most important difference between main and bonus armor is that illusions only benefit from main armor, although their HUD still shows the bonus armor just like on other heroes, to make them less obvious to the enemy. Some spells like Natural Order also only affect main armor.

Armor manipulation[edit]

Armor increasing abilities[edit]

The following abilities are able to increase unit's armor:

Unit abilities


Item abilities
  • Assault Cuirass icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Bonus: 5
    Aura, buffs all allies within range. Buff lingers for a short while.
  • Buckler icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Bonus: 2
    Hero Duration: 25
    Non-Hero Duration: 30
    Buffs allies within range upon cast.
  • Crimson Guard icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Bonus: 2
    Duration: 12
    Buffs allies within range upon cast.
  • Guardian Greaves icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Bonus: 2
    Boost Health Threshold: 20%
    Boosted Armor Bonus: 15
    Aura, buffs all allies within range. Buff lingers for a short while.
  • Medallion of Courage icon.png
    Ally Armor Bonus: 7
    Duration: 7
    Increases the target ally's armor upon cast.
  • Mekansm icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Bonus: 2
    Duration: 25
    Buffs allies within range upon cast.
  • Ring of Basilius (Active) icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Bonus: 2
    Aura, buffs all allies within range. Buff lingers for a short while.
  • Solar Crest icon.png
    Ally Armor Bonus: 12
    Duration: 7
    Increases the target ally's armor upon cast.
  • Vladmir's Offering icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Bonus: 4
    Aura, buffs all allies within range. Buff lingers for a short while.

Armor reducing abilities[edit]

The following abilities are able to reduce unit's armor:

Unit abilities
  • Acid Spray icon.png
    Radius: 400/475/550/625
    Armor Reduction: 4/5/6/7
    Spray Duration: 0.5
    Aura, debuffs all enemies within range. The debuff lingers for a short while.
  • Viscous Nasal Goo icon.png
    Max Stacks: 4 (Talent 10)
    Base Armor Reduction: 2
    Armor Reduction per Stack: 1.4/1.8/2.2/2.6
    Hero Duration: 5
    Creep Duration: 10
    Applies a debuff on the target upon cast. All stacks expire simultaneously.
  • Reality Rift icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 250/300/350/400
    Duration: 15%/25%/35%/45%
    Applies a debuff on the target upon cast, before the attack is applied.
  • Bad Juju icon.png
    Radius:
    Armor Reduction per Second:
    Duration:
    Debuffs all enemies within the area upon cast.
  • Natural Order icon.png
    Radius: 350
    Base Armor Reduction: 40%/60%/80%/100%
    Aura, debuffs all enemies within range. The debuff lingers for a short while. Only reduces base armor and that granted by agility.
  • Rip Tide icon.png
    Radius: 17%
    Armor Reduction: 30/40/50/60
    Duration: 2/4/6/8
    Debuffs all enemies within range upon cast.
  • Heartpiercer icon.png
    Total Armor Reduction:
    Duration:
    Applies a debuff on the target upon proccing. Sets the target's armor to 0, regardless of any bonuses or reductions.
  • Talent Right 2.png
    Armor Corruption: 3
    Applies a debuff on the target upon attack land, before the damage is applied.
  • Eye of the Storm icon.png
    Strike Interval: 0.7/0.6/0.5 (Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter. 0.6/0.5/0.4)
    Armor Reduction per Strike: 1
    Duration: 30
    Adds a stack on the attack target upon lightning impact, after the damage is applied. Does not reduce armor of struck buildings. Armor Reduction expires when the storm does.
  • Presence of the Dark Lord icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Reduction: 3/4/5/6 (Talent 8/9/10/11)
    Aura, debuffs all enemies which have vision over Shadow Fiend within range. The debuff lingers for a short while.
  • Corrosive Haze icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 10/15/20
    Duration: 18
    Debuffs the target upon cast.
  • Meld icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 2/4/6/8
    Duration: 10
    Debuffs the attack target upon projectile impact, after the attack damage is applied, but before Meld damage is applied.
  • Gush icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 4/5/6/7 (Talent 9/10/11/12)
    Duration: 4
    Debuffs the target upon projectile impact.
  • Wave of Terror icon.png
    Travel Distance: 1400
    Radius: 300
    Armor Reduction: 3/4/5/6
    Duration: 8
    Debuffs all hit enemies.
  • The Swarm icon.png
    Attack Interval: 1.25/1.1/0.95/0.8
    Armor Reduction per Attack: 1
    Duration: 16
    Adds a stack on affected units on each interval, before the damage is applied. Armor reduction lasts as long as the beetle does or until it is killed.
  • Desecrate (Ancient Prowler Shaman) icon.png
    Radius: 300
    Base Armor Reduction: 50%
    Duration: 6
    Debuffs all enemies within range upon cast. Only reduces base armor and that granted by agility.
  • Melting Strike (Forged Spirit) icon.png
    Armor Reduction per Attack: 1
    Armor Reduction Cap: 10
    Duration: 5
    Debuffs the attack target upon projectile impact, after the attack damage is applied. The stacks expire simultaneously.


Item abilities
  • Assault Cuirass icon.png
    Radius: 1200
    Armor Reduction: 5
    Aura, debuffs all enemies within range. Debuff lingers for a short while.
  • Blight Stone icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 2
    Duration: 8
    Debuffs the attack target upon attack/projectile, before the attack damage is applied.
  • Desolator icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 7
    Duration: 15
    Debuffs the attack target upon attack/projectile, before the attack damage is applied.
  • Mask of Madness icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 8
    Duration: 8
    Applies the armor reduction on the caster in the form of a buff, so it cannot be removed with allied dispels.
  • Medallion of Courage icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 7
    Duration: 7
    Debuffs the caster and the target enemy upon cast. Also debuffs self when targeting allies.
  • Solar Crest icon.png
    Armor Reduction: 12
    Duration: 10%
    Debuffs the caster and the target enemy upon cast. Also debuffs self when targeting allies.

Armor granting items[edit]

The following items increase a unit's Armor. The effects are limited to the item's owner, which must have the item equipped.

Armor increasing items
Item Value Item cost Cost per value point
Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter 1.6 4200 2625
Armlet of Mordiggian (Inactive) icon.png Armlet of Mordiggian 9 2380 264.44
Assault Cuirass icon.png Assault Cuirass 15 5250 350
Band of Elvenskin icon.png Band of Elvenskin 0.96 450 468.75
Blade Mail icon.png Blade Mail 5 2200 440
Blade of Alacrity icon.png Blade of Alacrity 1.6 1000 625
Bracer icon.png Bracer 0.48 540 1125
Buckler icon.png Buckler 5.32 800 150.38
Butterfly icon.png Butterfly 5.6 5475 977.68
Chainmail icon.png Chainmail 5 550 110
Circlet icon.png Circlet 0.32 165 515.63
Crimson Guard icon.png Crimson Guard 7.32 3550 484.97
Crown icon.png Crown 0.64 450 703.13
Dagon 1 icon.png Dagon 1 0.8 2700 3375
Dagon 2 icon.png Dagon 2 0.8 3950 4937.5
Dagon 3 icon.png Dagon 3 0.8 5200 6500
Dagon 4 icon.png Dagon 4 0.8 6450 8062.5
Dagon 5 icon.png Dagon 5 0.8 7700 9625
Diffusal Blade 1 icon.png Diffusal Blade 3.2 3150 984.38
Dragon Lance icon.png Dragon Lance 1.92 1900 989.58
Drum of Endurance icon.png Drum of Endurance 0.96 1525 1588.54
Eaglesong icon.png Eaglesong 4 3200 800
Ethereal Blade icon.png Ethereal Blade 6.4 4700 734.38
Eye of Skadi icon.png Eye of Skadi 4 5500 1375
Ghost Scepter icon.png Ghost Scepter 0.8 1500 1875
Guardian Greaves icon.png Guardian Greaves 7.8 5375 689.1
Headdress icon.png Headdress 0.32 525 1640.63
Helm of Iron Will icon.png Helm of Iron Will 5 900 180
Helm of the Dominator icon.png Helm of the Dominator 0.32 1875 5859.38
Hurricane Pike icon.png Hurricane Pike 3.2 4600 1437.5
Iron Branch icon.png Iron Branch 0.16 50 312.5
Linken's Sphere icon.png Linken's Sphere 2.08 5050 2427.88
Lotus Orb icon.png Lotus Orb 10 4000 400
Magic Wand icon.png Magic Wand 0.48 450 937.5
Manta Style icon.png Manta Style 4.16 4700 1129.81
Medallion of Courage icon.png Medallion of Courage 7 1175 167.86
Mekansm icon.png Mekansm 5.8 2275 392.24
Null Talisman icon.png Null Talisman 0.48 540 1125
Nullifier icon.png Nullifier 5 4700 940
Phase Boots icon.png Phase Boots 5 1550 310
Pipe of Insight icon.png Pipe of Insight 0.32 3025 9453.13
Platemail icon.png Platemail 10 1400 140
Power Treads (Agility) icon.png Power Treads (Agility) 2.24 1380 616.07
Ring of Basilius (Active) icon.png Ring of Basilius 2 500 250
Ring of Protection icon.png Ring of Protection 2 175 87.5
Rod of Atos icon.png Rod of Atos 1.92 2750 1432.29
Sange and Yasha icon.png Sange and Yasha 2.56 4100 1601.56
Scythe of Vyse icon.png Scythe of Vyse 1.6 5700 3562.5
Shiva's Guard icon.png Shiva's Guard 15 4750 316.67
Silver Edge icon.png Silver Edge 2.4 5550 2312.5
Slippers of Agility icon.png Slippers of Agility 0.48 135 281.25
Solar Crest icon.png Solar Crest 13.6 3875 284.93
Spirit Vessel icon.png Spirit Vessel 2.32 2975 1282.33
Ultimate Orb icon.png Ultimate Orb 1.6 2150 1343.75
Urn of Shadows icon.png Urn of Shadows 2.32 875 377.16
Veil of Discord icon.png Veil of Discord 6.96 2050 294.54
Vladmir's Offering icon.png Vladmir's Offering 4.32 1925 445.6
Wraith Band icon.png Wraith Band 1.28 540 421.88
Yasha icon.png Yasha 2.56 2050 800.78
Yasha and Kaya icon.png Yasha and Kaya 2.56 4100 1601.56
Values may include portions from actives or auras.

Damage multiplier[edit]

All units, including buildings, have an inherent base armor value and armor type. Any physical damage dealt to a unit is multiplied by the damage multiplier, resulting in either damage reduction or increase depending on the target's armor value.


For any real-valued armor, the damage multiplier is defined as

damage multiplier = 1 - ((0.052 × armor) ÷ (0.9 + 0.048 × |armor|)).

In Dota 2, the damage multiplier limits are 25/12 (roughly 2.08) and 0, for infinitely negative and positive armor, respectively.

Examples

Armor Damage multiplier Armor Damage multiplier
1 94.51% -1 105.49%
2 89.56% -2 110.44%
5 77.19% -5 122.81%
10 62.32% -10 137.68%
15 51.85% -15 148.15%
20 44.09% -20 155.91%

Effective health[edit]

Relationships between effective health %, damage multiplier and armor

The extra damage a unit can take due to armor is known as its extra effective health for physical damage. At 0 armor, 1 armor grants roughly 5.8% effective health. This means a unit with 1000 health and 1 armor can take 1058 physical damage. At 30 armor, this figure scales upwards to 7.7%, meaning armor is more effective at higher values.

On the other hand, the effectiveness of armor is much lower at negative values (see graph). Total effective health trends downwards towards 48%, meaning a unit with 1000 health and infinitely low armor would still be able to take 480 physical damage. At this point, losing or gaining 1 armor has essentially no effect.

Armor -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
Effective HP 575.51 600 641.38 726.32 1000 1604.65 2268.29 3000 3810.81

This definition of effective HP assumes all damage taken is physical. In Dota 2, magical damage (such as Lina minimap icon.png Lina's or Lion minimap icon.png Lion's ultimate) is modified by magic resistance.


Calculating effective HP:

The formula to calculate the EHP is:

EHP = current_HP / (1 - (0.052 * current_armor) / (0.9 + 0.048 * |current_armor|))

Method 1 (the definition above):

effective HP = base HP ÷ damage multiplier


Example 1:

A level 25 Sven minimap icon.png Sven has a total HP of 1910 and 12.04 points of armor. What is his effective HP vs physical damage?
By method 1, EHP = 1910 ÷ ( 1 - (12.04 × 0.052) ÷ (0.9 + 12.04 × 0.048) ) = 1910 ÷ 0.576378 = 3313.8
Sven can tank 3313.8 physical damage.


Example 2:

The same Sven from previous example is hit by a maxed Corrosive Haze. His armor is now -7.96. What is his effective HP vs physical damage?
By method 1, EHP = 1910 ÷ ( 1 - (-7.96 × 0.052) ÷ (0.9 + 7.96 × 0.048) ) = 1910 ÷ 1.32285 = 1496.33
Sven can tank 1496.33 physical damage.

Armor types[edit]

There are several different types of armor, which determine how much damage a unit takes against certain attack damage types. Each of the 3 different armor types either reduces, increases or does not affect the damage from each of the damage types, on top of armor values manipulating them.


Example:

A hero with 100 attack damage attacking a siege unit which has 0 armor deals 50 damage to it, because the attack type "hero" deals 50% less damage against the armor type "structure", which is the siege creeps' and all buildings' armor type. If the siege creep would gain 5 armor, the 100 damage attack would deal (100 * 0.7719298245614 * 0.5) = 38.59649122807 damage. The same attack would deal 77.19298245614 damage to a unit with any other armor type, since attack type hero deals full damage to them.

This table shows how much damage each armor type reduces against each attack damage type and which unit uses which armor type (units which take a set amount of damage per attack are excluded).

Armor Type Used by Attack Damage Type
Hero Basic Pierce Siege
Hero
Error: No database table exists named "units".
100% 75% 50% 85%
Basic
Error: No database table exists named "units".
100% 100% 150% 100%
Structure
Error: No database table exists named "units".
50% 70% 35% 250%

Trivia[edit]

  • In DotA the base magic resistance was bound to the assigned armor. In case of Hero Armor only 75% of the magic damage was applied. Some heroes possessed hidden passive skills to alter their base magic susceptibility albeit Hero Armor to 90% (Visage minimap icon.png Visage) or 65% (Meepo minimap icon.png Meepo). Nowdays in Dota 2 magic resistance works independently from armor.
  • The Basic armor type was refered to as Medium armor in DotA.
  • The deprecated Light damage type used to be called Chaos damage in DotA.
  • The deprecated Weak armor type used be called Light armor, Soft was referred to as Unarmored, and Strong was known as Heavy armor type.

Negative armor disparity[edit]

Negative armor damage multiplier for DotA and Dota 2
This graph shows how much more additional damage a target takes when armor debuffs are applied, using the WC3 DotA armor formula.

Amplified damage from negative armor is calculated differently in WC3 DotA than in Dota 2.[1].

Negative armor in WC3 DotA has a cap of -20 armor (71% damage increase). Further reducing the armor does not change the damage increase.[2]. Also, the more aggressive damage amplify formula is used resulting in a max damage increase of 71 %. The amplified damage is calculated from this formula:

Damage increase = 1 - 0.94^(-armor)

Comparison table

Balance changelog[edit]

See Damage#Balance changelog

See also[edit]

References[edit]