Attack speed

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Focus Fire icon.png
The frequency with which units attack is measured in attack speed. A unit's attack speed can be modified by items, agility, abilities, and auras.

Base attack time[edit]

Every unit has a base attack time (BAT), which refers to the default interval between attacks for an unbuffed unit with 0 agility and no attack speed bonus. For example, a melee lane creep has a BAT of 1.00 seconds, and thus attacks once every second by default. Similarly, if a hero with 1.7 BAT had 0 agility and no bonus attack speed, they would attack once every 1.70 seconds. While nearly every unit can have their attack speed modified, only a few heroes can actively change their BAT.

Every hero has a BAT of 1.7 except for the following:

Hero Base Attack Time Difference in Attacks/Sec AS Range in 1.7 BAT Representation Actual AS Range in game
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist (under Chemical Rage icon.png Chemical Rage level 3) 1.0 (+70.0%) 34~1020 90~670
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist (under Chemical Rage icon.png Chemical Rage level 2) 1.2 (+41.7%) 28~850 61.7~641.7
Alchemist minimap icon.png Alchemist (under Chemical Rage icon.png Chemical Rage level 1) 1.4 (+21.4%) 24~729 41.4~621.4
Juggernaut minimap icon.png Juggernaut 1.4 (+21.4%) 24~729 41.4~621.4
Oracle minimap icon.png Oracle 1.4 (+21.4%) 24~729 41.4~621.4
Anti-Mage minimap icon.png Anti-Mage 1.45 (+17.2%) 23~703 37.2~617.2
Lone Druid minimap icon.png Lone Druid (under True Form icon.png True Form) 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Queen of Pain minimap icon.png Queen of Pain 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Terrorblade minimap icon.png Terrorblade 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Troll Warlord minimap icon.png Troll Warlord (under Berserker's Rage icon.png Berserker's Rage) 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Windranger minimap icon.png Windranger 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Huskar minimap icon.png Huskar 1.6 (+6.3%) 21~638 26.3~606.3
Lina minimap icon.png Lina 1.6 (+6.3%) 21~638 26.3~606.3
Morphling minimap icon.png Morphling 1.6 (+6.3%) 21~638 26.3~606.3
Bristleback minimap icon.png Bristleback 1.8 (-5.6%) 19~567 14.4~594.4
Magnus minimap icon.png Magnus 1.8 (-5.6%) 19~567 14.4~594.4
Sven minimap icon.png Sven 1.8 (-5.6%) 19~567 14.4~594.4
Weaver minimap icon.png Weaver 1.8 (-5.6%) 19~567 14.4~594.4
Lifestealer minimap icon.png Lifestealer 1.85 (-8.1%) 18~551 11.9~591.9
Treant Protector minimap icon.png Treant Protector 1.9 (-10.5%) 18~537 9.5~589.5
Spirit Breaker minimap icon.png Spirit Breaker 1.9 (-10.5%) 18~537 9.5~589.5
Doom minimap icon.png Doom 2.0 (-15.0%) 17~510 5~585
  • Note: Rubick minimap icon.png Rubick is also capable of lowering his BAT if he steals and uses any of the abilities listed in the above table.
Unit Base Attack Time Difference in Attacks/Sec AS Range in 1.7 BAT Representation Actual AS Range in game
Witch Doctor Death Ward model.png Death Ward 0.22 (+672.7%) 155~4636 692.7~1272.7
Visage Familiar model.png Familiar 0.4 (+325.0%) 85~2550 345~925
Necronomicon Warrior 3 model.png Necronomicon Warrior 0.75 (+126.6%) 45~1360 146.6~726.6
Nature's Prophet Treant model.png Greater Treant 1.0 (+70.0%) 34~1020 90~670
Melee creeps.png Melee and Ranged Creeps 1.0 (+70.0%) 34~1020 90~670
Necronomicon Archer 3 model.png Necronomicon Archer 1.0 (+70.0%) 34~1020 90~670
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 4) 1.1 (+54.5%) 31~927 74.5~654.5
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 3) 1.15 (+47.8%) 30~887 67.8~647.8
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 2) 1.2 (+41.7%) 28~850 61.7~641.7
Warlock Golem model.png Warlock's Golem 1.2 (+41.7%) 28~850 61.7~641.7
Beastmaster Boar model.png Boar 1.25 (+36.0%) 27~816 56~656
Lycan Wolf model.png Lycan Wolf (level 1) 1.25 (+36.0%) 27~816 56~656
Brewmaster Earth minimap icon.png Earth 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756 45.9~625.9
Brewmaster Fire minimap icon.png Fire 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756 45.9~625.9
Broodmother Spiderling model.png Spiderite 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756 45.9~625.9
Broodmother Spiderling model.png Spiderling 1.35 (+25.9%) 25~756 45.9~625.9
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 4) 1.45 (+17.2%) 23~703 37.2~617.2
Enigma Eidolon model.png Eidolon 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Invoker Forged Spirit model.png Forged Spirit 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Venomancer Plague Ward model.png Plague Ward 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Shadow Shaman Serpent Ward model.png Serpent Ward 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Brewmaster Storm minimap icon.png Storm 1.5 (+13.3%) 23~680 33.3~613.3
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 3) 1.55 (+9.7%) 22~658 29.7~609.7
Undying Zombie model.png Undying Zombie 1.6 (+6.3%) 21~638 26.3~606.3
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 2) 1.65 (+3.0%) 21~618 23~603
Lone Druid Spirit Bear model.png Spirit Bear (level 1) 1.75 (-2.9%) 19~583 17.1~597.1
Nature's Prophet Treant model.png Treant 1.75 (-2.9%) 19~583 17.1~597.1
Roshan model.png Roshan 2.0 (-15.0%) 17~510 5~585
Siege creeps.png Siege Creeps 2.7 (-37.0%) 13~378 -17~563

Attack speed representation[edit]

The reciprocal of base attack time is base attack speed. For most heroes, this is 1 / 1.7 = 0.588 attacks per second. Attack speed is expressed in percent of base attack speed. The base is therefore expressed as 100. Each point of increased attack speed (IAS) adds 1 to that, giving 1% of base attack speed. Each point of agility increases IAS by 1. IAS is also modifiable by items, abilities, buffs, and debuffs. Attack speed works together with BAT to determine how often a unit can attack.

Attack speed caps of 20 and 600 are reached with -80 attack speed reduction and with +500 increased attack speed respectively, since every unit has a base attack speed of 100.

  • Note: When mousing over attack damage in the HUD, the first field shows the attack speed and the time per attack in parenthesis. The attack speed field is defaulted to 100 and adds the IAS afterward, leading to a lower boundary of 20 and an upper boundary of 600. Even though the display may show a unit to "exceed" these boundaries, the actual attack speed used for calculations will still obey the caps of 20 and 600. This can be easily verified by observing that the "time between attacks" display does not change even when pushing well past "600 attack speed".
  • Note2: Units that do not have 1.7 BAT will display their attack speed differently in the in-game HUD as if they had 1.7 BAT. For example, a unit with 0.85 BAT and no bonus attack speed (100 attack speed) will display itself as having 200 attack speed, because 0.85 seconds is how long a unit with 1.70 BAT and 200 attack speed would take in between attacks. This strange quirk makes it harder to figure out if a hero without 1.7 BAT is nearing the attack speed cap, but it does allow players to compare this uniform "attack speed metric" across all heroes more easily.

Attack speed formula[edit]

IAS vs BAT: attacks per second

The formulas below denote the relationship between BAT, IAS, attacks per second, and time between attacks.

Attacks per second = [(100 + IAS) × 0.01] / BAT
Attack time = BAT / [(100 + IAS) × 0.01] = 1 / (attacks per second)

For example, a lvl 1 Axe with no items has 1.7 BAT and 20 agility, which is converted to (0.20).

Attacks per second = [(100 + IAS) × 0.01] / BAT
Attacks per second = [(100 + 20) × 0.01] / 1.7
Attacks per second = 1.2 / 1.7
Attacks per second = ~0.706

>> Axe attacks about 0.706 times per second.

Attack time = 1 / 0.706
Attack time = ~1.417

>> Axe takes about 1.417 seconds between attacks.

Remember that units start with 100 attack speed, which caps at 20 and 600. This can be modified by IAS, which therefore caps at -80 and +500.


Here are some attack speed benchmarks and their effect on attacks per second:

-80 attack speed, a unit with 20 AS will take 5/1 times their BAT to attack (1/5x normal speed) (lower cap)
-75 attack speed, a unit with 25 AS will take 4/1 times their BAT to attack (1/4x normal speed)
-66 attack speed, a unit with 33 AS will take 3/1 times their BAT to attack (1/3x normal speed)
-50 attack speed, a unit with 50 AS will take 2/1 times their BAT to attack (1/2x normal speed)
+00 attack speed, a unit with 100 AS will take 1/1 times their BAT to attack (1x normal speed)
+100 attack speed, a unit with 200 AS will take 1/2 times their BAT to attack (2x normal speed)
+200 attack speed, a unit with 300 AS will take 1/3 times their BAT to attack (3x normal speed)
+300 attack speed, a unit with 400 AS will take 1/4 times their BAT to attack (4x normal speed)
+400 attack speed, a unit with 500 AS will take 1/5 times their BAT to attack (5x normal speed)
+500 attack speed, a unit with 600 AS will take 1/6 times their BAT to attack (6x normal speed) (upper cap)

List of items increasing attack speed[edit]

Bonus attack speed
Item Value Item cost Cost per value point
Aghanim's Scepter icon.png Aghanim's Scepter 10 4200 420
Armlet of Mordiggian (Inactive) icon.png Armlet of Mordiggian 25 2370 94.8
Assault Cuirass icon.png Assault Cuirass 55 5250 95.45
Band of Elvenskin icon.png Band of Elvenskin 6 450 75
Blade of Alacrity icon.png Blade of Alacrity 10 1000 100
Bloodthorn icon.png Bloodthorn 30 7195 239.83
Bracer icon.png Bracer 3 490 163.33
Buckler icon.png Buckler 2 800 400
Butterfly icon.png Butterfly 65 5525 85
Circlet icon.png Circlet 2 165 82.5
Crimson Guard icon.png Crimson Guard 2 3550 1775
Dagon 1 icon.png Dagon 1 3 2720 906.67
Dagon 2 icon.png Dagon 2 3 3970 1323.33
Dagon 3 icon.png Dagon 3 3 5220 1740
Dagon 4 icon.png Dagon 4 3 6470 2156.67
Dagon 5 icon.png Dagon 5 3 7720 2573.33
Diffusal Blade 1 icon.png Diffusal Blade 1 25 3150 126
Diffusal Blade 2 icon.png Diffusal Blade 2 35 3850 110
Dragon Lance icon.png Dragon Lance 12 1900 158.33
Drum of Endurance icon.png Drum of Endurance 28 1640 58.57
Eaglesong icon.png Eaglesong 25 3200 128
Echo Sabre icon.png Echo Sabre 10 2650 265
Ethereal Blade icon.png Ethereal Blade 40 4700 117.5
Eye of Skadi icon.png Eye of Skadi 25 5775 231
Ghost Scepter icon.png Ghost Scepter 5 1500 300
Glimmer Cape icon.png Glimmer Cape 20 1850 92.5
Gloves of Haste icon.png Gloves of Haste 20 500 25
Guardian Greaves icon.png Guardian Greaves 5 5375 1075
Hand of Midas icon.png Hand of Midas 30 2150 71.67
Headdress icon.png Headdress 2 675 337.5
Helm of the Dominator icon.png Helm of the Dominator 22 2025 92.05
Hurricane Pike icon.png Hurricane Pike 20 4650 232.5
Hyperstone icon.png Hyperstone 55 2000 36.36
Iron Branch icon.png Iron Branch 1 50 50
Linken's Sphere icon.png Linken's Sphere 15 4850 323.33
Maelstrom icon.png Maelstrom 25 2800 112
Magic Wand icon.png Magic Wand 4 465 116.25
Manta Style icon.png Manta Style 41 5000 121.95
Mask of Madness icon.png Mask of Madness 120 1975 16.46
Mekansm icon.png Mekansm 5 2375 475
Mjollnir icon.png Mjollnir 80 5700 71.25
Moon Shard icon.png Moon Shard 120 4000 33.33
Null Talisman icon.png Null Talisman 3 470 156.67
Oblivion Staff icon.png Oblivion Staff 10 1650 165
Orchid Malevolence icon.png Orchid Malevolence 30 4075 135.83
Poor Man's Shield icon.png Poor Man's Shield 6 500 83.33
Power Treads (Agility) icon.png Power Treads (Agility) 35 1350 38.57
Power Treads (Intelligence) icon.png Power Treads (Intelligence) 25 1350 54
Power Treads (Strength) icon.png Power Treads (Strength) 25 1350 54
Quarterstaff icon.png Quarterstaff 10 875 87.5
Ring of Aquila (Active) icon.png Ring of Aquila 9 985 109.44
Rod of Atos icon.png Rod of Atos 6 3080 513.33
Sange and Yasha icon.png Sange and Yasha 32 3900 121.88
Scythe of Vyse icon.png Scythe of Vyse 10 5700 570
Shadow Amulet icon.png Shadow Amulet 20 1300 65
Shadow Blade icon.png Shadow Blade 30 2700 90
Silver Edge icon.png Silver Edge 45 5550 123.33
Slippers of Agility icon.png Slippers of Agility 3 150 50
Ultimate Orb icon.png Ultimate Orb 10 2150 215
Urn of Shadows icon.png Urn of Shadows 2 875 437.5
Veil of Discord icon.png Veil of Discord 6 2240 373.33
Vladmir's Offering icon.png Vladmir's Offering 2 2275 1137.5
Wraith Band icon.png Wraith Band 6 485 80.83
Yasha icon.png Yasha 26 1950 75
Values may include portions from actives or auras.

List of abilities increasing attack speed[edit]

  • Curse of Avernus icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 10/20/30/40
    Duration: 4.5
    Affects every unit attacking a debuffed unit.
  • Frenzy (Ancient Thunderhide) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 75
    Duration: 8
    Affects targeted ally.
  • War Drums Aura (Ancient Thunderhide) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 15
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Magnetic Field icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 50/60/70/80
    Duration: 3.5/4.5/5.5/6.5
    Radius: 275
    Affects all allied heroes and buildings within the field.
  • Culling Blade icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 30
    Duration: 6 (Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter. 10)
    Affects allies within a 900 radius upon successfully culling an enemy.
  • Inner Beast icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 15/25/35/45
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Strafe icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 130 (Talent 200)
    Duration: 4/6/8/10
    Affects self.
  • Swiftness Aura (Hellbear Smasher) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 15
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Hurricane Pike icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 100
    Duration: 5
    When it is cast on an enemy. Affects self. Only grants attack speed against the targeted enemy. Bonus is lost after 4 attacks or within 5 seconds, whichever is shorter.
  • Berserker's Blood icon.png
    Max Attack Speed Bonus: 220/260/300/340
    Affects self. Grants attack speed for point of health missing, reaching the cap at 10% health.
  • Alacrity icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 10/25/40/55/70/85/100 (Upgradable by Aghanim's Scepter. /115)
    Duration: 9
    Affects targeted ally. Based on level of Wex icon.png Wex.
  • Wex icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus per Wex Instance: 2/4/6/8/10/12/14
    Max instances: 3
    Affects self. 3 instances grant 6/12/18/24/30/36/42 attack speed.
  • Overcharge icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 40/50/60/70
    Affects self and the Tether icon.png Tethered ally. Lasts until toggled off.
  • Press the Attack icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 65/90/115/140
    Duration: 5
    Affects targeted ally.
  • Rage icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 50/60/70/80
    Duration: 3/4/5/6
    Affects self.
  • Fiery Soul icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus per Stack: 40/55/70/85
    Max Stacks: 3
    Duration: 10
    Affects self. Gains a stack on each spell cast. 3 stacks grant 120/165/210/255 attack speed.
  • Rabid icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 10/20/30/40
    Duration: 18/22/26/30
    Affects self and the Spirit Bear.
  • Leap icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 16/32/48/64 (Talent 116/132/148/164)
    Duration: 5
    Affects allies within a 775 radius on cast.
  • Archer Aura (Necronomicon Archer) icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 5/7/9
    Radius: 900
    Aura, affecting allies within range.
  • Hunter in the Night icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 45/60/75/90
    Affects self. Grants bonuses only during the night.
  • Bloodlust icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 30/40/50/60 (Talent 70/80/90/100)
    Duration: 30
    Affects targeted ally. Can be cast on buildings.
  • Phantom Strike icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 130
    Duration: 4
    Affects self. Bonus is lost after 4 attacks or within 4 seconds, whichever is shorter. Buff is lost upon switching targets.
  • Battle Trance icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 60/120/180
    Duration: 5
    Affects all allied heroes.
  • Fervor icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus per Stack: 15/20/25/30
    Max Stacks: 7
    Affects self. Gains a stack on each attack on the same target. All stacks are lost upon changing target. 7 stacks grant 105/140/175/210 attack speed.
  • Overpower icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 400
    Duration: 15
    Affects self. Bonus is lost after 3/4/5/6 attacks or within 15 seconds, whichever is shorter.
  • Grave Chill icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 64
    Duration: 3/4/5/6
    Affects self.
  • Focus Fire icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 500
    Duration: 20
    Affects self. Only grants attack speed against the targeted enemy. The buff is not lost upon switching target, so it continues to give attack speed upon switching back to it.
  • Winter's Curse icon.png
    Attack Speed Bonus: 70
    Duration: 3.25/4/4.75
    Affects all enemy units within 500 radius around the target.

List of items and abilities reducing attack speed[edit]


Version history[edit]

Version
Description
  • Maximum Attack Speed increased from 500 to 600 (the primary impact of this is on abilities like Windranger's Focus Fire and Ursa's Overpower).

See also[edit]